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Sign-up to get news, updates and special offers. Sign-up to receive special offers, news and updates. The Rorschach can be thought of as a psychometric examination of pareidolia , the active pattern of perceiving objects, shapes, or scenery as meaningful things to the observer's experience, the most common being faces or other pattern of forms that are not present at the time of the observation.
Although the Exner Scoring System developed since the s claims to have addressed and often refuted many criticisms of the original testing system with an extensive body of research,  some researchers continue to raise questions.
The areas of dispute include the objectivity of testers, inter-rater reliability , the verifiability and general validity of the test, bias of the test's pathology scales towards greater numbers of responses, the limited number of psychological conditions which it accurately diagnoses, the inability to replicate the test's norms, its use in court-ordered evaluations, and the proliferation of the ten inkblot images , potentially invalidating the test for those who have been exposed to them.
Using interpretation of "ambiguous designs" to assess an individual's personality is an idea that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli.
Rorschach's, however, was the first systematic approach of this kind. It has been suggested that Rorschach's use of inkblots may have been inspired by German doctor Justinus Kerner who, in , had published a popular book of poems, each of which was inspired by an accidental inkblot.
After studying mental patients and control subjects, in Rorschach wrote his book Psychodiagnostik , which was to form the basis of the inkblot test after experimenting with several hundred inkblots, he selected a set of ten for their diagnostic value ,  but he died the following year.
Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society, Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared.
In , the newly founded Hans Huber publishing house purchased Rorschach's book Psychodiagnostik from the inventory of Ernst Bircher.
After Rorschach's death, the original test scoring system was improved by Samuel Beck, Bruno Klopfer and others. Exner summarized some of these later developments in the comprehensive system , at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous.
Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations. The Exner system remains very popular in the United States , while in Europe other methods sometimes dominate,   such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohm , which is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles.
Rorschach never intended the inkblots to be used as a general personality test, but developed them as a tool for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
It was not until that the test was used as a projective test of personality, a use of which Rorschach had always been skeptical.
The Rorschach test is appropriate for subjects from the age of five to adulthood. The administrator and subject typically sit next to each other at a table, with the administrator slightly behind the subject.
Side-by-side seating of the examiner and the subject is used to reduce any effects of inadvertent cues from the examiner to the subject.
In other words, side-by-side seating mitigates the possibility that the examiner will accidentally influence the subject's responses.
Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored, on a white background. The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them.
Whether the cards are rotated, and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked, may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment.
Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and, if required, a separate location chart.
The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets, and including needs , base motives , conflicts , and that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations.
Rorschach scoring systems have been described as a system of pegs on which to hang one's knowledge of personality.
Administration of the test to a group of subjects, by means of projected images, has also occasionally been performed, but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes.
The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method specifically.
Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months. However, even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years.
The interpretation of the Rorschach test is not based primarily on the contents of the response, i. In fact, the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: for instance, information is provided by the time taken before providing a response for a card can be significant taking a long time can indicate "shock" on the card.
In particular, information about determinants the aspects of the inkblots that triggered the response, such as form and color and location which details of the inkblots triggered the response is often considered more important than content, although there is contrasting evidence.
The goal in coding content of the Rorschach is to categorize the objects that the subject describes in response to the inkblot. There are 27 established codes for identifying the name of the descriptive object.
The codes are classified and include terms such as "human", "nature", "animal", "abstract", "clothing", "fire", and "x-ray", to name a few.
Content described that does not have a code already established should be coded using the code "idiographic contents" with the shorthand code being "Idio.
More than any other feature in the test, content response can be controlled consciously by the subject, and may be elicited by very disparate factors, which makes it difficult to use content alone to draw any conclusions about the subject's personality; with certain individuals, content responses may potentially be interpreted directly, and some information can at times be obtained by analyzing thematic trends in the whole set of content responses which is only feasible when several responses are available , but in general content cannot be analyzed outside of the context of the entire test record.
Identifying the location of the subject's response is another element scored in the Rorschach system.
Location refers to how much of the inkblot was used to answer the question. Administrators score the response "W" if the whole inkblot was used to answer the question, "D" if a commonly described part of the blot was used, "Dd" if an uncommonly described or unusual detail was used, or "S" if the white space in the background was used.
A score of W is typically associated with the subject's motivation to interact with his or her surrounding environment. D is interpreted as one having efficient or adequate functioning.
A high frequency of responses coded Dd indicate some maladjustment within the individual. Responses coded S indicate an oppositional or uncooperative test subject.
Systems for Rorschach scoring generally include a concept of "determinants": These are the factors that contribute to establishing the similarity between the inkblot and the subject's content response about it.
They can also represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes, showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world.
Rorschach's original work used only form , color and movement as determinants. However currently, another major determinant considered is shading ,  which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing quality of the inkblots.
Rorschach initially disregarded shading,  since the inkblots originally featured uniform saturation, but later recognized it as a significant factor.
Form is the most common determinant, and is related to intellectual processes. Color responses often provide direct insight into one's emotional life.
Movement and shading have been considered more ambiguously, both in definition and interpretation. Rorschach considered movement only as the experiencing of actual motion, while others have widened the scope of this determinant, taking it to mean that the subject sees something "going on".
More than one determinant can contribute to the formation of the subject's perception. Fusion of two determinants is taken into account, while also assessing which of the two constituted the primary contributor.
For example, " form - color " implies a more refined control of impulse than " color - form ". It is, indeed, from the relation and balance among determinants that personality can be most readily inferred.
A striking characteristic of the Rorschach inkblots is their symmetry. Many unquestionably accept this aspect of the nature of the images but Rorschach, as well as other researchers, certainly did not.
Rorschach experimented with both asymmetric and symmetric images before finally opting for the latter. Asymmetric figures are rejected by many subjects; symmetry supplied part of the necessary artistic composition.
It has a disadvantage in that it tends to make answers somewhat stereotyped. On the other hand, symmetry makes conditions the same for right and left handed subjects; furthermore, it facilitates interpretation for certain blocked subjects.
Finally, symmetry makes possible the interpretation of whole scenes. The impact of symmetry in the Rorschach inkblot's has also been investigated further by other researchers.
It was developed in the s by Dr. John E. Exner , as a more rigorous system of analysis. It has been extensively validated and shows high inter-rater reliability.
He later published a study in multiple volumes called The Rorschach: A Comprehensive system , the most accepted full description of his system.
Creation of the new system was prompted by the realization that at least five related, but ultimately different methods were in common use at the time, with a sizeable minority of examiners not employing any recognized method at all, basing instead their judgment on subjective assessment, or arbitrarily mixing characteristics of the various standardized systems.
The key components of the Exner system are the clusterization of Rorschach variables and a sequential search strategy to determine the order in which to analyze them,  framed in the context of standardized administration, objective, reliable coding and a representative normative database.
In the system, responses are scored with reference to their level of vagueness or synthesis of multiple images in the blot, the location of the response, which of a variety of determinants is used to produce the response i.
It has been reported that popular responses on the first card include bat, badge and coat of arms. Using the scores for these categories, the examiner then performs a series of calculations producing a structural summary of the test data.
The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses.
With the Rorschach plates the ten inkblots , the area of each blot which is distinguished by the client is noted and coded—typically as "commonly selected" or "uncommonly selected".
There were many different methods for coding the areas of the blots. Exner settled upon the area coding system promoted by S. Beck and This system was in turn based upon Klopfer's work.
As pertains to response form, a concept of "form quality" was present from the earliest of Rorschach's works, as a subjective judgment of how well the form of the subject's response matched the inkblots Rorschach would give a higher form score to more "original" yet good form responses , and this concept was followed by other methods, especially in Europe; in contrast, the Exner system solely defines "good form" as a matter of word occurrence frequency, reducing it to a measure of the subject's distance to the population average.
They believed that the Exner scoring system was in need of an update, but after Exner's death, the Exner family forbade any changes to be made to the Comprehensive System.
It is an attempt at creating a current, empirically based, and internationally focused scoring system that is easier to use than Exner's Comprehensive System.
The manual consists of two chapters that are basics of scoring and interpretation, aimed for use for novice Rorschach users, followed by numerous chapters containing more detailed and technical information.
In terms of updated scoring, the authors only selected variables that have been empirically supported in the literature.
To note, the authors did not create new variables or indices to be coded, but systematically reviewed variables that had been used in past systems.
Scoring of the indices has been updated e. In addition to providing coding guidelines to score examinee responses, the R-PAS provides a system to code an examinee's behavior during Rorschach administration.
These behavioral codes are included as it is believed that the behaviors exhibited during testing are a reflection of someone's task performance and supplements the actual responses given.
This allows generalizations to be made between someone's responses to the cards and their actual behavior. Comparing North American Exner normative data with data from European and South American subjects showed marked differences in some features, some of which impact important variables, while others such as the average number of responses coincide.
The differences in form quality are attributable to purely cultural aspects: different cultures will exhibit different "common" objects French subjects often identify a chameleon in card VIII, which is normally classed as an "unusual" response, as opposed to other animals like cats and dogs; in Scandinavia, "Christmas elves" nisser is a popular response for card II, and "musical instrument" on card VI is popular for Japanese people ,  and different languages will exhibit semantic differences in naming the same object the figure of card IV is often called a troll by Scandinavians and an ogre by French people.
Form quality, popular content responses and locations are the only coded variables in the Exner systems that are based on frequency of occurrence, and thus immediately subject to cultural influences; therefore, cultural-dependent interpretation of test data may not necessarily need to extend beyond these components.
The cited language differences mean that it's imperative for the test to be administered in the subject's native language or a very well mastered second language, and, conversely, the examiner should master the language used in the test.
Test responses should also not be translated into another language prior to analysis except possibly by a clinician mastering both languages.
For example, a bow tie is a frequent response for the center detail of card III, but since the equivalent term in French translates to "butterfly tie", an examiner not appreciating this language nuance may code the response differently from what is expected.
Below are the ten inkblots printed in Rorschach Test — Psychodiagnostic Plates ,  together with the most frequent responses for either the whole image or the most prominent details according to various authors.
The Rorschach test is used almost exclusively by psychologists. Douglas Kelley and psychologist Gustave Gilbert administered the Rorschach test to the 22 defendants in the Nazi leadership group prior to the first Nuremberg trials.
Many psychologists in the United Kingdom do not trust its efficacy and it is rarely used. Shortly after publication of Rorschach's book, a copy found its way to Japan where it was discovered by one of the country's leading psychiatrists in a second-hand book store.
He was so impressed that he started a craze for the test that has never diminished. Some skeptics consider the Rorschach inkblot test pseudoscience ,   as several studies suggested that conclusions reached by test administrators since the s were akin to cold reading.
There is nothing in the literature to encourage reliance on Rorschach interpretations. McCall writes p. A report by Wood and colleagues had more mixed views: "More than 50 years of research have confirmed Lee J.
Cronbach's final verdict: that some Rorschach scores, though falling woefully short of the claims made by proponents, nevertheless possess 'validity greater than chance' p.
It is also used regularly in research on dependency, and, less often, in studies on hostility and anxiety. Furthermore, substantial evidence justifies the use of the Rorschach as a clinical measure of intelligence and thought disorder.
The basic premise of the test is that objective meaning can be extracted from responses to blots of ink which are supposedly meaningless.
Supporters of the Rorschach inkblot test believe that the subject's response to an ambiguous and meaningless stimulus can provide insight into their thought processes, but it is not clear how this occurs.
Also, recent research shows that the blots are not entirely meaningless, and that a patient typically responds to meaningful as well as ambiguous aspects of the blots.
An intense dialogue about the wallpaper or the rug would do as well provided that both parties believe.
In the s, research by psychologists Loren and Jean Chapman showed that at least some of the apparent validity of the Rorschach was due to an illusion.
At this time homosexuality was regarded as a psychopathology , and the Rorschach was the most popular projective test.
The Chapmans investigated the source of the testers' false confidence. In one experiment, students read through a stack of cards, each with a Rorschach blot, a sign and a pair of "conditions" which might include homosexuality.
The information on the cards was fictional, although subjects were told it came from case studies of real patients. The students still reported seeing a strong positive correlation.
The Chapmans called this phenomenon " illusory correlation " and it has since been demonstrated in many other contexts. A related phenomenon called "invisible correlation" applies when people fail to see a strong association between two events because it does not match their expectations.
Homosexual men are more likely to see a monster on Card IV or a part-animal, part-human figure in Card V. The subjects missed these perfect associations and instead reported that invalid signs, such as buttocks or feminine clothing, were better indicators.
In , the psychologist Stuart Sutherland argued that these artificial experiments are easier than the real-world use of the Rorschach, and hence they probably underestimated the errors that testers were susceptible to.
He described the continuing popularity of the Rorschach after the Chapmans' research as a "glaring example of irrationality among psychologists".
Some critics argue that the testing psychologist must also project onto the patterns. A possible example sometimes attributed to the psychologist's subjective judgement is that responses are coded among many other things , for "Form Quality": in essence, whether the subject's response fits with how the blot actually looks.
Superficially this might be considered a subjective judgment, depending on how the examiner has internalized the categories involved.
But with the Exner system of scoring, much of the subjectivity is eliminated or reduced by use of frequency tables that indicate how often a particular response is given by the population in general.
Third parties could be used to avoid this problem, but the Rorschach's inter-rater reliability has been questioned. That is, in some studies the scores obtained by two independent scorers do not match with great consistency.
When interpreted as a projective test, results are poorly verifiable. The Exner system of scoring also known as the "Comprehensive System" is meant to address this, and has all but displaced many earlier and less consistent scoring systems.
It makes heavy use of what factor shading, color, outline, etc. Disagreements about test validity remain: while the Exner proposed a rigorous scoring system, latitude remained in the actual interpretation, and the clinician's write-up of the test record is still partly subjective.
Nevertheless, there is substantial research indicating the utility of the measure for a few scores.
Several scores correlate well with general intelligence. One such scale is R, the total number of responses; this reveals the questionable side-effect that more intelligent people tend to be elevated on many pathology scales, since many scales do not correct for high R: if a subject gives twice as many responses overall, it is more likely that some of these will seem "pathological".
There is some evidence that the Deviant Verbalizations scale relates to bipolar disorder. The authors conclude that "Otherwise, the Comprehensive System doesn't appear to bear a consistent relationship to psychological disorders or symptoms, personality characteristics, potential for violence, or such health problems as cancer".
It is also thought [ by whom? Exner has published detailed instructions, but Wood et al. Similarly, the procedures for coding responses are fairly well specified but extremely time-consuming leaving them very subject to the author's style and the publisher to the quality of the instructions such as was noted with one of Bohm's textbooks in the s  as well as clinic workers which would include examiners being encouraged to cut corners.
United States courts have challenged the Rorschach as well. Jones v Apfel stated quoting from Attorney's Textbook of Medicine that Rorschach "results do not meet the requirements of standardization, reliability, or validity of clinical diagnostic tests, and interpretation thus is often controversial".
Bogacki stated under oath "many psychologists do not believe much in the validity or effectiveness of the Rorschach test"  and US v Battle ruled that the Rorschach "does not have an objective scoring system.
Another controversial aspect of the test is its statistical norms. Exner's system was thought to possess normative scores for various populations.
But, beginning in the mids others began to try to replicate or update these norms and failed. In particular, discrepancies seemed to focus on indices measuring narcissism , disordered thinking, and discomfort in close relationships.
The accusation of "over-pathologising" has also been considered by Meyer et al. The test is also controversial because of its common use in court-ordered evaluations.
Weiner co-developer with John Exner of the Comprehensive system has stated that the Rorschach "is a measure of personality functioning, and it provides information concerning aspects of personality structure and dynamics that make people the kind of people they are.
Sometimes such information about personality characteristics is helpful in arriving at a differential diagnosis, if the alternative diagnoses being considered have been well conceptualized with respect to specific or defining personality characteristics".
Exner and others have claimed that the Rorschach test is capable of detecting suicidality. Psychologists object to the publication of psychological test material out of concerns that a patient's test responses will be influenced " primed " by previous exposure.
The Canadian Psychological Association takes the position that, "Publishing the questions and answers to any psychological test compromises its usefulness" and calls for "keeping psychological tests out of the public domain.
From a legal standpoint, the Rorschach test images have been in the public domain for many years in most countries, particularly those with a copyright term of up to 70 years post mortem auctoris.
They have been in the public domain in Hermann Rorschach's native Switzerland since 70 years after the author's death, or 50 years after the cut-off date of , according to Swiss copyright law.
William Poundstone was, perhaps, first to make them public in his book Big Secrets , where he also described the method of administering the test.
The American Psychological Association APA has a code of ethics that supports "freedom of inquiry and expression" and helping "the public in developing informed judgments".
The APA has also raised concerns that the dissemination of test materials might impose "very concrete harm to the general public".
It has not taken a position on publication of the Rorschach plates but noted "there are a limited number of standardized psychological tests considered appropriate for a given purpose".
On September 9, , Hogrefe attempted to claim copyright over the Rorschach ink blots during filings of a complaint with the World Intellectual Property Organization against the Brazilian psychologist Ney Limonge.
These complaints were denied. Psychologists have sometimes refused to disclose tests and test data to courts when asked to do so by the parties citing ethical reasons; it is argued that such refusals may hinder full understanding of the process by the attorneys, and impede cross-examination of the experts.
APA ethical standard 1. Controversy ensued in the psychological community in when the original Rorschach plates and research results on interpretations were published in the "Rorschach test" article on Wikipedia.
James Heilman , an emergency room physician involved in the debate, compared it to the publication of the eye test chart : though people are likewise free to memorize the eye chart before an eye test, its general usefulness as a diagnostic tool for eyesight has not diminished.
The first one studied negative attitudes towards the test generated during the Wikipedia-Rorschach debate,  while the second suggested that reading the Wikipedia article could help to fake "good" results in the test.
Publication of the Rorschach images is also welcomed by critics who consider the test to be pseudoscience. Benjamin Radford , editor of Skeptical Inquirer magazine, stated that the Rorschach "has remained in use more out of tradition than good evidence" and was hopeful that publication of the test might finally hasten its demise.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rorschach inkblot test. For the band, see Rorschach Test band.
The first of the ten cards in the Rorschach test. Main article: Rorschach Performance Assessment System.
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